Salam Dari keinginan yang membuak-buak ingin mengetahui lebih banyak tentang kewangan Islam, terjumpa pula pelbagai-bagai isltilah yang tidak difahami langsung tetapi penting untuk diketahui supaya lebih jelas bila perlu melaksanakanya. Tidak dapat tidak sebagai seorang Muslim kita hanya ada satu pilihan iaitu kewangan Islam dan kewangan Islam adlah yang terbaik namun amatlah rendah thapa kefahaman kita tentangnya. Mungkin terlalu asas tetapi istilah ini amatlah luas penggunaannya dalam transaksi-transaksi kita dan mahu tidak mahu kita perlu tahu. Perlu saya kekalkan ianya dalam bahasa inggeris kerana saya bukanlah seorang yang bijak mengalih bahasa tetapi bagi saya bahasanya mudah difahami untuk semua. Selamat membaca
- Bai' al 'inah
- is a financing facility with the underlying buy and sell transactions between the financier and the customer. The financier buys an asset from the customer on spot basis. The price paid by the financier constitutes the disbursement under the facility. Subsequently the asset is sold to the customer on a deferred-payment basis and the price is payable in instalments. The second sale serves to create the obligation on the part of the customer under the facility. There are differences of opinion amongst the scholars on the permissibility of Bai' al 'inah, however this is practised in Malaysia and the like jurisdictions
- This concept refers to the sale of goods on a deferred payment basis at a price, which includes a profit margin agreed to by both parties. Like Bai' al 'inah, this concept is also used under an Islamic financing facility. Interest payment can be avoided as the customer is paying the sale price which is not the same as interest charged on a loan.
- Literally bai' muajjal means a credit sale. Technically, it is a financing technique adopted by Islamic banks that takes the form of murabahah muajjal. It is a contract in which the bank earns a profit margin on the purchase price and allows the buyer to pay the price of the commodity at a future date in a lump sum or in installments. It has to expressly mention cost of the commodity and the margin of profit is mutually agreed. The price fixed for the commodity in such a transaction can be the same as the spot price or higher or lower than the spot price. Bai' muajjal is also called a deferred-payment sale.
- Musharakah (joint venture) is an agreement between two or more partners, whereby each partner provides funds to be used in a venture. Profits made are shared between the partners according to the invested capital. In case of loss, each partner loses capital in the same ratio. If the Bank provides capital, the same conditions apply. It is this financial risk, according to the Shariah, that justifies the bank's claim to part of the profit. Each partner may or may not participate in carrying out the business. A working partner gets a greater profit share compared to a sleeping (non-working) partner. The difference between Musharaka and Madharaba is that, in Musharaka, each partner contributes some capital, whereas in Madharaba, one partner, e.g. a financial institution, provides all the capital and the other partner, the entrepreneur, provides no capital. Note that Musharaka and Madharaba commonly overlap
- A special kind of partnership where one partner gives money to another for investing it in a commercial enterprise. The investment comes from the first partner who is called "rabb-ul-mal", while the management and work is an exclusive responsibility of the other, who is called "mudarib. Mudarabah (Profit Sharing) is a contract, with one party providing 100 percent of the capital and the other party providing its specialist knowledge to invest the capital and manage the investment project. Profits generated are shared between the parties according to a pre-agreed ratio. Compared to Musharaka, in a Mudaraba only the lender of the money has to take losses.
- This concept refers to the sale of goods at a price, which includes a profit margin agreed to by both parties. The purchase and selling price, other costs, and the profit margin must be clearly stated at the time of the sale agreement. The bank is compensated for the time value of its money in the form of the profit margin. This is a fixed-income loan for the purchase of a real asset (such as real estate or a vehicle), with a fixed rate of profit determined by the profit margin. The bank is not compensated for the time value of money outside of the contracted term (i.e., the bank cannot charge additional profit on late payments); however, the asset remains as a mortgage with the bank until the default is settled.
- is the negotiation of a selling price between two parties without reference by the seller to either costs or asking price. While the seller may or may not have full knowledge of the cost of the item being negotiated, they are under no obligation to reveal these costs as part of the negotiation process. This difference in obligation by the seller is the key distinction between Murabaha and Musawamah with all other rules as described in Murabaha remaining the same. Musawamah is the most common type of trading negotiation seen in Islamic commerce.
- a contract in which advance payment is made for goods to be delivered later on. The seller undertakes to supply some specific goods to the buyer at a future date in exchange of an advance price fully paid at the time of contract. It is necessary that the quality of the commodity intended to be purchased is fully specified leaving no ambiguity leading to dispute. The objects of this sale are goods and cannot be gold, silver, or currencies based on these metals. Barring this, Bai Salam covers almost everything that is capable of being definitely described as to quantity, quality, and workmanship.